• Anastomosis –  A Cross connection between two tubes. In surgery, anastomosis refers to a connection between two vessels made by surgical stitching or stapling.
  • Aneurism – Local dilatation of a blood vessel.
  • Angina pectoris      or  Chest angina is severe chest pain due to coronary artery stenosis.
  • Arrest  – cardiac arrest, sudden cessation of heart function.
  • Arrhythmia irregular heart rhythm
  • Atrial fibrillation – lack of atrial contraction in which heart atria flicker and trigger completely irregular ventricle contraction
  • Atherosclerosis – Process of cholesterol plaques settling and subsequent inner arterial layers degeneration.
  • Atrial flatter – similar to atrial fibrillation except that some very fast and inefficient atrial contraction exists.


  • Bentalova procedure – Aortic surgery in which aortic valve and ascending aorta are replaced altogether with a conduit graft while coronary artery ostia are reimplanted on the graft .


  • Aortic dissection – dissection of aortic wall layers by blood flow. Severe condition and surgical emergency.
  • Dyspnea – Shortness of breath


  • Graft   – Generally, a blood vessel harvested from a patient and used for bypassing the stenotic artery. In transplant surgery, denotes transplanted organ.


  • Fibrillation – Flickering of heart chambers. Ventricular fibrillation is a severe malignant arrhythmia resulting in sudden death.


  • Hypoxia – Decreased blood oxygen level.


  • Emboly – Blood vessel obstruction by a cloth or other material originating from somewhere in the human body.


  • Infraction –  Tissue death
  • Ischemia – Tissue oxygen deprivation
  • Insufficiency – Failure, heart failure or incompetence valve insufficiency


  • Clinical death – Heart arrest. A possibly reversible condition that if untreated leads to brain death.
  • Come – Deep state of prolonged unconsciousness.


  • NYHA classification – New York Heart Association classification of heart failure. Class I -no limitations of activity; Class II – slight limitation in everyday physical activity; Class III – ordinary activity results in shortness of breath; Class IV – dyspnea at rest


  • Brain death – brain cell death, irreversible condition.


  • Paresis – Decrease mobility due to peripheral or central nerve damage.
  • Plegia – Complete inability to move due to peripheral or central nerve damage.
  • Pulmonary embolism – Complete pulmonary artery blockage by cloth mostly from peripheral vein.
  • Prolapse – Valve incompetence. Valve leaflets do not close therefore result in blood regurgitation in the opposite direction.


  • Regurgitation  – Blood back flow due to valve incompetence.


  • Syncope – Sudden loss of consciousness due to a drop in blood pressure
  • Stenosis – blood vessel blockage


  • Thrombus – A blood clot
  • Thrombosis – Blood clot formation